As the New Year approaches, we all are excited about the fascinating fireworks that light up the night sky. Have you ever wondered what lies within the magic of fireworks? Did you know that the art of making and displaying fireworks is called Pyrotechnic. This is a perfect exploration opportunity for kids interested in STEM education. Display of fireworks depends on various sciences such as Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering. In this blog, we will follow the science behind the magic of fireworks, exploring the reasons that lights up the New Year sky.

The Chemistry of Vibrant Colors

Fireworks come in various colors that are derived from specific chemical compounds. If your child has experienced after school STEM programs at K-Rockets, they would already know that the dazzling reds, blues, greens, and golds are created through the precise combination of various elements.

Strontium and Fiery Reds

Strontium is a chemical compound responsible for producing vibrant red colors in fireworks. Strontium compounds, such as strontium carbonate, is a white, colorless powder, and is widely used in pyrotechnic compositions. When ignited, strontium releases energy in the form of red light. This process produces fiery red colors that form during the fireworks displays.

Barium for Green Brilliance

Barium compounds, particularly barium chloride and barium nitrate, are responsible for producing green fireworks. When heated, barium releases green light that becomes a part of the vibrant colors in a firework display.

Copper and the Blues

Copper compounds, such as copper chloride or copper carbonate, are used to generate various shades of blue color. When ignited, copper releases energy in the blue part of the spectrum, adding colorful depth and richness to the visual spectacle creating light and dark, blue, navy, aqua and other blue hues.

Glittering Golds with Iron

To achieve the warm, golden display in fireworks, iron-based compounds are useful. Iron, when ignited, emits yellow and orange colored lights, creating the illusion of golden sparks that appear during a firework display.

The White Magic of Titanium

While many other elements contribute to vibrant colors, titanium is used to produce brilliant white fireworks. Titanium, when ignited, emits an intense white light, providing contrast and brightness to the overall display.

The Physics of Explosions

Besides the Chemistry of formation of dazzling colors in fireworks, Physics plays a critical role too. Physics is the most fascinating science amongst all the STEM programs, and the explosive bursts and detailed geometric and artistic patterns are guided by the principles of Physics.

The Burst: Rapid Oxidation

The thunderous burst of a firework is the result of rapid oxidation emerging out of the shell. Within the firework shell, there is a carefully crafted mixture of fuel and oxidizer. This mixture undergoes a rapid chemical reaction upon ignition, releasing a significant amount of gas. The expanding gas creates pressure within the shell until it can no longer contain the force, resulting in the explosive burst that marks the beginning of the fireworks display.

Shell Shape and Visual Effects

The shape of the firework shell, determined by the arrangement of chemicals and explosives within it, dictates the visual pattern observed in the sky. From simple spherical bursts to intricate designs like chrysanthemums and willows, the artistry of fireworks is a fusion of Chemistry and Physics.

Shell Break and the Formation of Stars

As the firework shell bursts, the ignited compounds within it disperse, creating the shimmering points of light we see. These stars are small, dense pellets composed of the chemical compounds responsible for the display’s colors. The arrangement and timing of these stars determine the overall visual effect, whether it’s a cascading willow or a burst of glittering sparks.

The Sparkle of Sparklers

While aerial fireworks dominate the night sky, ground-based pyrotechnics also contribute to the festivities. Handheld sparklers, a favorite form of fireworks amongst kids, follow the same principles of combustion and thermal radiation. A typical sparkler consists of a metal powder, usually aluminum or iron, combined with an oxidizer and a binder. The metal powder serves as the fuel, while the oxidizer facilitates the combustion process. When a sparkler is ignited, the heat generated initiates the combustion of the metal powder. The metal oxidizes rapidly, releasing energy in the form of intense heat and light. The radiant heat causes the surrounding metal particles to glow, producing the light of the sparkler.

The Role of Technology: Computerized Choreography

Advancements in technology have transformed fireworks displays into sophisticated and nuanced entertainment with choreographed precision. Computerized firing systems enable pyrotechnicians to synchronize explosions with music, creating a symphony of light and sound that captivates audiences.

Firing Sequences and Musical Integration

In modern fireworks displays, each shell is equipped with an electronic firing mechanism. These mechanisms are linked to a central computer, allowing for precise control over the timing and sequence of each explosion. Pyrotechnicians can design intricate displays that align with the rhythm and mood of accompanying music.

Green Pyrotechnics

Researchers are exploring eco-friendly or green alternatives for pyrotechnics, aiming to replace traditional metal-based compounds with environmentally friendly materials. These initiatives focus on maintaining the visual spectacle of fireworks while reducing potential environmental impacts.

Conclusion: A Symphony of Science and Celebration

As the clock strikes midnight on New Year’s Eve, and the sky erupts in a dazzling display of fireworks, we witness the synchronized fusion of science and celebration. The chemistry of colors, the physics of explosions, and the artistry of design come together to create a spectacle that transcends cultural boundaries and mesmerizes the audiences. It is also important to not only enjoy but also emphasize that teaching kids about these fascinating scientific phenomena and applications is critical in developing their interest in STEM fields early on. Good quality, after school STEM programs and coding classes for kids help build an interest and enthusiasm at an early age. As we marvel at the brilliance of New Year’s fireworks, let’s recognize the incredible educational opportunities they present. In the grand finale of a fireworks show, where the sky is ablaze with color and light, we witness not just a celebration of the New Year but also a celebration of knowledge, curiosity, and the boundless potential of STEM exploration for kids.